Today we go into a bookstore and often wonder of cost of books. Good edition, quality paper and illustrations all affect the cost of books. However, it should be noted, the history knows many examples, when books cost much more expensive.
Today we tell about the most expensive books in history.
1“Leicester code”, Leonardo da Vinci
“Leicester code” — notebook scientific records, made by Leonardo da Vinci in Milan in 1506-1510 gg. The manuscript consists of 18 sheets of paper, inscribed on both sides and form a 72-page notebook.
Leonardo notes written in his own mirror writing to read only with a mirror.
Entries are devoted to various phenomena, the nature of which was thinking Leonardo: why glows the Moon, how and why water flows in rivers, where are the fossils, what are minerals and so on. The notebook also contains a large number of mathematical calculations, diagrams and drawings.
Leicester Codex was named after the Earl of Leicester, bought the manuscript in 1717 g.
B 1980 g. a notebook from the heirs of Leicester bought the Armand hammer, in whose honor it was for a short period called “Code Hammer”.
After his death in 1994 g. the code was put up for auction, in the course of which was acquired by Microsoft founder bill gates for $30,8 million.
On his initiative “Leicester code” exhibited in various museums around the world, with 2003 g. it is shown in the Seattle art Museum.
2“The Magna Carta”
“The Magna Carta” — political-legal document, completed in June 1215 g. based on the requirements of the English nobility by king John of England and defending a number of legal rights and privileges of the free population of medieval England.
It consists of 63 articles, regulating the issues of taxes, fees, and feudal obligations, the judicial system and legal proceedings, the rights of the Church of England, cities and merchants, the law of succession and guardianship.
Just to have survived 17 copies of the book. Instance 1297 g. with the seal of king Edward III at Sotheby's acquired the co-founder of the investment Fund Carlyle Group, David Rubenstein. Before this owner was the American billionaire Ross Perot.
The book was sold for $21,3 million.
3The St Cuthbert Gospel
Cutberto the gospel — an old manuscript book (a copy of the gospel of John), dated VII century ad.
Cutberto the gospel — the miniature book of 94 sheets of vellum format 138 × 92 mm. Well preserved wooden back cover. The text is thoroughly adjusted and refers to the Italo-Northumbrian type. Initials written in red, other decorations no. To the sheet 42 the text contained 19 lines per page, next was 20.
The St Cuthbert gospel British library has rented with 1979 city, and subsequently received the privilege for the purchase of manuscripts, in partnership with Durham University.
The book was sold for $14,3 million.
4The Massachusetts book of Psalms
This is the earliest of the extant books, printed in North America.
The book of Psalms, that is the book of Psalms, was printed in 1640 g. in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The Psalms are metrical translations into English. Their translation is imperfect and sometimes far from poetry. None of the texts are now no longer used. However, some tunes from the book, by which to sing the Psalms, has reached our days (for example, the melody of the 100th Psalm).
However, the publication of the book, made only using 20 years after, as the pilgrim fathers founded Plymouth colony, is a serious achievement. The book had several editions and continued to be used over a hundred years.
Now preserved only 11 copies of the first edition of the book.
The first edition was sold in 2013 g. for $14,2 million.
5Book Of Hours Rothschild
In the XIX century the owners of the manuscript were the Rothschilds. First, the book was bought by Adolf Rothschild from Geneva. After his death in 1900 g. the hours passed to his nephew Maurice de Rothschild, living in Paris. B 1940 g. during the Nazi occupation of France, the Germans confiscated the manuscript, sending him to Neuschwanstein castle in Germany. B 1948 g. it was returned to its former owner, in which 1954 g. sold it to the Metropolitan Museum in new York.
Baroness Bettina Rothschild put it up for sale at Christie's, where it was sold at a cost, almost three times the estimate. Two last owners of the book remain incognito.
The book was sold for $13.4 million.
6The Gospel Of Henry The Lion, The order of St. Benedict
Manuscript edition of the gospel, taken around 1188 g. by order of Henry the Lion (1129-1195), the Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, the representative of the dynasty of the Guelph for the altar of the virgin Mary in the Cathedral of Braunschweig.
The manuscript contains the four Gospels, counts 226 pages, decorated in a unique Romanesque style by the monks and novices Benedictine Abbey, Helmarshausen, includes 50 illustrations. Considered a masterpiece among the manuscripts of the XII century.
After the fall of Henry the Lion manuscript for a long time was considered lost. In the XIX century it was found in Prague, in 1861 g. it got George V, the king of Hanover, the ancestor of which is Henry the lion. Five years later, George V was deposed and fled to Austria and took with him the manuscript. Then trace the relics again been lost, but 1983 g. unknown dealer put the gospel of Henry the Lion at the auction house Sothebys.
The book was sold for $11,7 million.
7“Birds Of America”, John James Audubon
“Birds Of America” album with illustrations of birds of North America life-size, made by the American naturalist John. J.. Dubnom. Printed parts in Edinburgh and London 1827 on 1838 years. First edition (the order of 180-200 copies) recognized as a masterpiece of printing, and the greatest rarity.
As far back as 1807 g. Audubon perfected the technique, Zoological illustration, with wire and twine by learning to give natural poses stuffed birds, which had served him for models. K 1820 g. he aimed to illustrate all the species of birds, living in North America. Finding no funding in the United States, naturalist gathered the available illustration and 1826 g. sailed to Britain, where he managed the project of interest to several well-known engravers of the time. To extend the circle of subscribers, Audubon traveled with his lectures in Paris. In the end “Birds Of America” signed by many persons of high society, including Charles X and Queen Adelaide.
The text portion of the book was later published in Edinburgh in 5 volumes under the title “Ornithological biography” (Ornithological Biography, 1831-39). Price 4-volume set “Birds Of America” (with text and illustrations) approaching $1 thousand.
The uniqueness of the publication was extremely high quality illustrations, over coloring employing fifty people. Prints half the size of human growth hand-painted with watercolors, Audubon himself also used pastel and gouache.
In terms of, when photography was only doing the first steps, detailed engraved illustrations have been claimed by zoologists, so great was not only aesthetic, but the scientific value of the publication. Images are of absolute precision, besides six types of imprinted Dubnom birds now extinct.
Copies of the book were sold for $7,9 million, $8,8 million and $11,5 million.
8“The Canterbury tales”, Geoffrey Chaucer
“The Canterbury tales”— the work of poet Geoffrey Chaucer, written in the late fourteenth century middle English language; not completed.
Is a collection of 22 poetry and two prose novels, United by a common frame: stories told by the pilgrims, bound to worship the relics of St. Thomas Beckett in Canterbury and described in the author's prologue to the work. According to the plan of Chaucer, each of them had to tell four stories (two on the way to Canterbury and two on the way back). Storytellers apply to all classes of medieval English society: among them is a knight, monk, priest, doctor, the sailor, merchant, weaver, Cook, yeoman, etc.
The book was printed in 1477 g. English printing pioneer William Caxton.
Preserved only 12 copies of the first edition. Some were sold for $7,5 million.
9“The first folio: Comedy, Chronicles and tragedies”, William Shakespeare
This book includes thirty-six of Shakespeare's plays (except “Pericles” and “The two noble kinsmen”).
This copy of the first edition of the plays of William Shakespeare was printed in 1623 g. John Heming and Henry Candela, worked in Shakespeare's troupe.
Title reads: “Mr. William Shakespeare's comedies, Chronicles and tragedies. Printed with accurate and authentic texts”.
Associates Shakespeare, decided to issue his plays, redeemed from different publishers rights to them, dealt with “pirate” versions and recreated the works in the original.
This book was sold for $6,2 million.
Les Liliacées – this work of Flemish painter Pierre-Joseph Redoubt, known as “Rafael flowers”.
The book contains original watercolor paintings.
This book is one of the collections of drawings of lilies, which was sold in 1985 g. for $5 million.